Freedom of Air - Public Awareness of Outdoor Wood Boilers

Public Awareness and Reasearch of Outdoor Wood Boilers

STUDIES, RESEARCH, and LAWS

 This page is dedicated to all of the studies and research we have come across throughout the years of research we have done. You will find many very useful articles and links on this page proving that Outdoor Wood Boilers not only are a problem, but have been a problem for many years. If you know of a study not listed or have conducted one of your own please contact us and let us know. freedomofair@yahoo.com

 

 

NOTE: SOME OF THESE LINKS DO REQUIRE ADOBE TO VIEW THEM AS PDF FILES, IF YOU ARE HAVING TROUBLE VIEWING ANY OF THESE LINKS PLEASE CONTACT US AND WE WILL TRY TO FIX THE PROBLEM.

Model Ordinances

To view a comprehensive list of City/County/State ordinances please visit the Model Ordinances page. 

New Studies, Research, and Laws added 2014

 

 

 

Below are some of the newest findings on Outdoor Wood Boiler Research.  This page has a lot of content and we will be in the process of checking "dead" links in the near future. We will also be placing the date added section behind each entry, that way you as the reader can see what information is the most up to date. 

2010 Research Study for Outdoor Wood-Fired Boilers: A Synopsis for Urban Use  Date added 3-3-2014


Report prepared and written by: Michael Dourson and Oliver Kroner (2010) Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assesment (TERA) for the City of Cincinnati, Ohio

Please click below for the entire Report: Outdoor Wood-Fired Boilers: A Synopsis for Urban Use

 

As quoted by the text in 2010: 

"Unfortunately the use of OWBs in urban settings has lead to numerous complaints of health hazards."

2013 Lawsuit filed by American Lung Association, Environmental Defense Fund, Clean Air Council, and Environment and Human Health, Inc. VS. United States EPA   Date added 12-7-2013

Copy of the lawsuit filed in October 2013 vs. U.S. EPA to regulate OWBs

Please click below for the entire Document:

 October 2013 Lawsuit Filed vs. U.S EPA

2013 List of local ordinances regulating Outdoor Wood Boilers in Minnesota   Date added 6-3-2013

 List compiled by Minnesota Pollution Control Agency in 2013:

Please click below for the entire List:
List of Minnesota OWB Ordinances by Municipality

Burn Wood Good: Fostering Pollution Accountability for Outdoor Wood Boilers  Date added 6-3-2013

Report prepared and written by: Anna Curtis, Brett Foreman, Jenny Hamilton, Ian Hough,Sharai Lewis-Gruss, SamTimberg, and Chas Wirene (2007) Middlebury College. 

Please click below for the entire Report: Burn Good Wood: Fostering Pollution Accountability for Outdoor Wood Boilers

 

As quoted by the text in 2007: 

"Our efforts to educate people and bring about public awareness introduced us to the crooked politics that can be involved when industry has interests (especially economic)in the issues."

 

Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Outdoor Air near Outdoor Wood-fired Boilers (NY State Health Department) Date added 4-16-2013 

Report prepared by: New York State Health Department, Bureau of Toxic Substance Assessment, January 2013. 

Please click below for the entire Report:

 Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Outdoor Air near Outdoor Wood-fired Boilers

 

 

Review of EPA Method 28 Outdoor Wood Hydronic Heater Test Results (NY State Energy Research and Development Authority)  Date added 4-16-2013 

Report prepared by: New York State Energy Research Development Authority NYSERDA , September 2011. 

Please click below for the entire Report:

 Review of EPA Method 28 Outdoor Wood Hydronic Heater Test Results

 

Quick Summary of this report: 

This report was conducted on the findings of 23 "white tag" OWBs that were supposedly more efficient and less polluting than previous manufactured OWBs. The study above shows the results of testing those 23 units.  

 

As quoted by the text in 2011: 

"The technical review of the test results for the 23 White Tag qualified hydronic heater units presented here, found more than 90 percent of the existing tests had questionable results for efficiency and/or particulate emissions rates......"

2012 List of local ordinances regulating Outdoor Wood Boilers in Wisconsin    Date added 4-16-2013

 List compiled by Wisconsin Department of Health Services in 2012:

Please click below for the entire List:

 List of Wisconsin Local Ordinances regulating Outdoor Wood Boilers

 

Adverse Health Effects, Exposure Threats, Outdoor Wood Boilers and Regulatory Challenges Relating to Residential Wood Combustion Date added 4-16-2013

 Report prepared and written by: Philip R.S. Johnson (2011) appearing in Air and Waste Management Association January 2011

Please click below for the entire Report:

Adverse Health Effects, Exposure Threats, Outdoor Wood Boilers and Regulatory Challenges Relating to Residential Wood Combustion

 

As quoted by the text in 2011: 

"Efforts to prescribe OWB setback distances as a means of protecting downwind populations generally fail to account for real-world conditions and variability."

Older Studies, Research, and Laws

Most of the information below was compiled prior to 2010. All of the information is still relevant as the first study done in 1998 told us OWBs were inefficient compared to other heating sources. 

Emissions From Outdoor Wood-Burning Residential Hot Water Furnaces (U.S. EPA)

Report written by: Joseph Valenti and Russell Clayton (1998), U.S. EPA

Please click below for the entire Report:

 

Emissions From Outdoor Wood-Burning Residential Hot Water Furnaces

 

As quoted by the text in 1998: 

"It is evident that all wood-burning home heating combustion equipment, including wood stoves, boilers, or fireplaces, has much higher particulate matter emissions than gas- or oil-fired home heating furnaces."

Health Consultation: Outdoor Wood Boiler Investigation (U.S. Dept of Health)

Report written by: U.S. Dept of Health: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry in cooperation with Michigan Dept. of Community Health(2009)

Please click below for the entire Report:

 

Health Consultation: Outdoor Wood Boiler Investigation

 

As quoted by the text:

"MDCH concludes that inhaling elevated concentrations PM2.5 found in wood smoke on a short-term or long-term basis in a residential neighborhood can harm people’s health. MDCH concludes that the continued operation of the specific OWB in question is an urgent public health hazard based on the findings described in this health consultation."

An Assessment of Risk from Particulate Released from Outdoor Wood Boilers

Report written by: Dr. David R. Brown, Barbara G. Callahan, and Andrea L. Boissevain (2007)

Please click below for the entire Report:

 

An Assessment of Risk from Particulate Released from Outdoor Wood Boilers

 

Testimony On An Act Adding Wood Smoke to the Public Health Nuisance Code and Concerning Outdoor Wood-burning Furnaces in Connecticut

Testimony given by: Dr. David R. Brown ScD, Public Health Toxicologist, EHHI , to Environment Senate Committee of Connecticut  (2010)

Please click below for the entire Testimony:

 

Testimony to Connecticut Senate Committee

or Secondary Link

As quoted by the text:

"It is important that the legislature be reminded that the contamination of air found in this study is several times higher than is found outdoors on even the most polluted days in Connecticut. It is essential that Connecticut follow the lead of Washington State and ban the use of outdoor wood burning furnaces. It is equally necessary to take immediate steps to reduce the serious exposures now occurring."

Some graphs courtesy of this study: . 

Assessment of Outdoor Wood-fired Boilers (NESCAUM)

Report written by: Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) (2006)

Please click below for the entire Report:

 

Assessment of Outdoor Wood-fired Boilers

 

Source Characterization of Outdoor Furnaces in Connecticut(NESCAUM)

Report written by: Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) (2008)

Please click below for the entire Report:

 

Source Characterization of Outdoor Wood Furnaces

 

Outdoor Wood Boiler Plume Data (Emission Rates)

Data Published in June 2004

Please click below for the entire Study:

 

Residential Wood Boiler Study

 

City Ordinances, Smoke and Outdoor Wood Burners or Boilers

Report written by: By Rachel Carlson, League of Minnesota Cities, Staff Attorney (2010)

Please click below for the entire Report:

 

City Ordinances, Smoke and Outdoor Wood Burners or Boilers or CLICK HERE

The Problems With Outdoor Wood-Fired Boilers

Presentation written by: Tom Todd, Washington Dept. of Ecology

Please click below for the entire Powerpoint Presentation:

 

THE PROBLEMS WITH OUTDOOR WOOD-FIRED BOILERS

 

Smoke Gets In Your Lungs: Outdoor Wood Boilers In New York State (2008)

Report written by: Judith Schreiber, Ph.D. and Robert Chinery, P.E., el al, NY Attorney General's Office (2008)

Please click below for the entire Report:

 

NEW YORK ATTORNEY GENERAL'S REPORT ON OUTDOOR WOOD BOILERS 2008

 

Smoke Gets In Your Lungs: Outdoor Wood Boilers In New York State (2005)

Report written by: Judith Schreiber, Ph.D. and Robert Chinery, P.E., et. al., NY Attorney General's Office (2005)

Please click below for the entire Report:

 

 NEW YORK ATTORNEY GENERAL'S REPORT ON OUTDOOR WOOD BOILERS 2005

 

Iowa Attorney General's Letter Sales of OWBs in Iowa (2009)

Letters written by: William Brauch, Special Assistant Attorney General Iowa Attorney General's Office (2009)

Please click below for the entire set of letters:

 

Iowa Attorney General's Letter Sales of OWBs

 

Quotes from the text of the letters:

"It has become to our attention that at least some manufacturers or sellers of outdoor wood boilers may have misrepresented the extent to which use of a particular outdoor complies with emission standards for air pollutant contaminants....."  

"Please be aware that misrepresentations, deception, or unfair practices in connection with advertisements or representations made regarding other features or alleged benefits of these products are also actionable under the Consumer Fraud Act"

The Truth About Outdoor Wood-Fired Boilers

Report written by: Allegheny County Health Dept. (Pittsburgh, PA) 

Please click below for the entire Brochure:

 

The Truth About Outdoor Wood-Fired Boilers

Outdoor Wood Boilers and Open Burning

Presentation written by: Barbara Nuffer, New York DEC, Division of Air Resources

Please click below for the entire Powerpoint Presentation:

 

Outdoor Wood Boilers and Open Burning

 

Maine Air Toxics Advisory Committee: Position Paper on Outdoor Wood Boilers

Report written by: Maine Air Toxics Advisory Committee (ME-ATAC)

Please click below for the entire Report:

 

Maine Air Toxics Advisory Committee: Position Paper on Outdoor Wood Boilers

 

American Lung Association of New England: Position Statement: Outdoor Wood Boilers

Report written by: American Lung Association of New England (ALANE)

Please click below for the entire Report:

 

American Lung Association of New England: Position Statement: Outdoor Wood Boilers

American Lung Association of Indiana: Position Statement: Outdoor Wood Boilers

Report written by: American Lung Association of Indiana 

Please click below for the entire Report:

 

American Lung Association of Indiana: Position Statement: Outdoor Wood Boilers

Fact Sheets and Other Resources

Below are a list of Fact Sheets and Other Sources we have found useful in our research. Once again if you know of study not listed please let us know. 

 

Note: Many of these require Adobe to view. 

NESCAUM OWB Fact Sheet (as seen on EPA website)

Please click here to view the Facts Sheet: NESCAUM OWB Fact Sheet

Our Outdoor Wood Boiler Fact Sheet

OUR OWB FACT SHEET


WHAT THEY ARE:

An outdoor wood boiler (OWB) is any furnace, stove, or boiler designed to burn wood, where the unit is not located within a building intended for habitation by humans or domestic animals. OWBs, also known as water stoves, typically look like a small utility building with a smoke stack. OWBs provide heating and/or hot water to a single residence.  Most OWBs cost between $3,000-$10,000 installed (
1).

CONCERNS:

WITH BUILDING STRUCTURE

Stack Height


The stack heights should be high enough to permit adequate dispersion of the pollutants that are released.  The stacks of these units are very short.  Smoke and soot are released close to the ground.
(
2).  In contrast to indoor wood stoves, which feature chimneys located above the building's roof line, smoke is released from the OWB via a short chimney, typically at a height of approximately six to ten feet.  Chimney extensions are sometimes added to increase the height (3).  The generally short chimneys and reduced draft of OWBs fail to disperse emissions adequately and can cause smoky conditions at or near ground level (4).

WITH PARTICULATES AND EMISSIONS RELEASED

Particulate size and the ability to penetrate

Releases particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microns [PM 2.5] (5).  Particulate matter of this size can easily penetrate air gaps commonly found in doors and windows.

Types of Emmissions

Wood smoke contains a mixture of at least 100 different compounds in the form of gases and fine sooty particulate matter (PM).  Some of the major components of wood smoke are on EPA's list of six "criteria pollutants" in the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), including ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide.  This smoke can contain unhealthy levels of toxic air pollutants and known carcinogens, including significant amounts of particulate matter (PM) of various polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) (6).         

    

Types of items possibly burned

Hazards associated with burning garbage or inappropriate materials--Burning particleboard, treated, stained, painted, wet or freshly cut wood can release very toxic chemicals.  These materials should never be burned in OWBs.  Trash burning is especially harmful because it releases chemicals that are persistent in the environment, polluting our air, food, lakes and streams.  Burning plastic and treated wood also releases heavy metals and toxic chemicals such as dioxins.  Exposure to dioxins can cause skin problems, reproductive or developmental problems, and may even increase the risk of cancer (7).  Never burn household garbage or cardboard (8)Outdoor Wood Boilers may be more expensive to operate depending on the availability and price of dry seasoned wood (9).

Health risks

The six criteria pollutants were singled out by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) because of the negative impacts of these pollutants on human health, which include coughing and difficult or painful breathing, increased susceptibility to respiratory illness like pneumonia and bronchitis, eye and nose irritation, hospitalization for heart or lung diseases, and premature death.  Symptoms of people exposed to wood smoke from OWBs include eye and nose irritation, breathing difficulty, wheezing, coughing, and headaches.  People with heart disease, asthma, emphysema, or other respiratory diseases are especially sensitive.  In particular, wood smoke can be harmful to the elderly, babies, children, and pregnant women (10)The American Lung Association of Maine strongly cautions against the use of outdoor wood boilers for residential heating purposes (11).

Property value/selling prices

The value of property may decrease over time because of the emissions that are incurred from the outdoor wood boiler.  People selling their property may have to decrease the asking price to compensate for the OWB that affects the property.

WITH INEFFICIENCY

While advertised as a clean economical way to heat one's house and water, OWBs may be among the dirtiest and least economical modes of residential heating, especially when improperly used (12).

Emissions Comparison

The current generation of OWBs emits as much particulate matter as 50 to 500 diesel trucks (13).  They emit over ten times the amount of air pollution than an EPA certified wood burning stove (14).  Even when used properly, OWBs emit, on an average per hour basis, about 4 times as much PM 2.5 as conventional wood stoves, about 12 times as much PM 2.5 as EPA certified wood stoves, 1000 times more PM 2.5 than oil furnaces, and 1800 times more PM 2.5 than gas furnaces (15 or 15). 

SOLUTIONS:

1.  Ensure that OWBs are installed where they do not create an air pollution health hazard.  Local officials should give careful consideration to the influence that changes in land use can have on where OWBs are installed.  This is especially important when agriculturally zoned land is changed to residential.  This frequently results in homes being built too close to OWBs.

2. Restrict what can be burnt in an OWB to clean dry firewood.

3. Place OWBs at least 300-500 feet from the nearest building which is not on the same property as the unit.

4. Require that OWB chimneys be 15 feet high, or at least as high as the roofs of nearby buildings.

5. Require annual permitting of OWBs by the local fire chief (16).


REFERENCES:

1)  Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services http://www.dhfs.state.wi.us/eh/HlthHaz/fs/waterstoves.htm

2)  Vermont Air Pollution Control Division  http://www.vtwoodsmoke.org/ME-hlth.html

3)  Smoke Gets in Your Lungs:  Outdoor Wood Boilers in New York State (Attorney General's Report) http://www.oag.state.ny.us/press/2005/aug/August%202005.pdf

4)  Petition for rulemaking under 42 U.S.C. § 7411(b)(1) Regarding Outdoor Wood Boilers

 http://www.oag.state.ny.us/press/2005/aug/Petition.pdf

5)  Petition for rulemaking under 42 U.S.C. § 7411(b)(1) Regarding Outdoor Wood Boilers

http://www.oag.state.ny.us/press/2005/aug/Petition.pdf

6)  Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services

http://www.dhfs.state.wi.us/eh/HlthHaz/fs/waterstoves.htm

7) Wisconsin Department of  Health and Family Services http://www.dhfs.state.wi.us/eh/HlthHaz/fs/waterstoves.htm

8)  U.S. EPA Program Fact Sheet http://www.epa.gov/woodheaters/pdfs/fact_sheet_1_29_07.pdf

9)  Petition for rulemaking under 42 U.S.C. § 7411(b)(1) Regarding Outdoor Wood Boilers

http://www.oag.state.ny.us/press/2005/aug/Petition.pdf

10)  Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services
http://www.dhfs.state.wi.us/eh/HlthHaz/fs/waterstoves.htm

11)  Vermont Air  Pollution Control Division http://www.vtwoodsmoke.org/ME-hlth.html

12)  Petition for rulemaking under 42 U.S.C. § 7411(b)(1) Regarding Outdoor Wood Boilers

http://www.oag.state.ny.us/press/2005/aug/Petition.pdf

13)  NESCAUM Outdoor Wood Boiler Fact Sheet http://www.nescaum.org/documents/owbfactsheetfinal.pdf

14)  Vermont Air Pollution Control Division http://www.vtwoodsmoke.org/ME-hlth.html

15)  Petition for rulemaking under 42 U.S.C. § 7411(b)(1) Regarding Outdoor Wood Boilers

http://www.oag.state.ny.us/press/2005/aug/Petition.pdf

 or

Smoke Gets in Your Lungs: Outdoor Wood Boilers in New York State (Attorney General's Report)

http://www.oag.state.ny.us/press/2005/aug/August%202005.pdf

16) Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services http://www.dhfs.state.wi.us/eh/HlthHaz/fs/waterstoves.htm

Guidance for local government and public health officials on the use and regulation of outdoor wood boilers (OWBs). (Wisconsin State Dept. of Health website)

Case Law involving Outdoor Wood Boilers

 

 

If you know of any other case law or have your own personal case available for viewing, please let us know and we will add it below.

COMMON PLEAS OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA 

COMMON PLEAS OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

CIVIL ACTION ­ EQUITY

JOYCE McGRATH and : NO. 94­03805

MICHAEL SNODGRASS, h/w

vs.

WILLIAM R. DURHAM and BARBARA DURHAM h/w

TO VIEW: CLICK HERE

Quick Summary/Decision:

"It is hereby ORDERED AND DECREED that the defendants are permanently enjoined from using their wood­burning stove."

COMMONWEALTH COURT OF PENNSYLVANIA, SMITH TOWNSHIP, PA

COMMONWEALTH COURT OF PENNSYLVANIA

Appellants

Robert McLaughlin and

Diane McLaughlin

v.:

The Zoning Hearing Board :

of Smithfield Township

No. 90 C.D. 2008

Submitted: April 25, 2008

TO VIEW: CLICK HERE

 

Quick Summary/Decision:

"Owners of the OWB claimed the township government did not appropriately enforce its applicable zoning laws (nuisance law) , thus they should be able to use their OWB. The court rejected this notion and upheld the nuisance citation laws "

 

COMMONWEALTH COURT OF PENNSYLVANIA, HAMILTON TOWNSHIP, PA

COMMONWEALTH COURT OF PENNSYLVANIA

Appellants

David R. Lease

v.:

The Zoning Hearing Board and Board of Supervisors :

of Hamilton Township

No. 1613 C.D. 2009.

Submitted: January 15, 2010

To View: CLICK HERE

Quick Summary/Decision:

"Owner of the OWB claimed the township government did not have reasonable grounds to enforce its applicable zoning laws, thus they should be able to use their OWB and also build a Garage without a permit. The court rejected this notion and upheld substantial evidence that supports the Board's decision."

The OWB Industry's Response

This section is simply discussing the response to the claims from the OWB industry about their products. In no way do we agree with what is being said or promote their products.  The purpose of this section is to prove even THE OWB INDUSTRY admits they need to have some regulation on their devices because their products are not as they promote them. 

 

 

The Manufacturers of OWBs are sponsored by the Hearth, Patio, & Barbecue Association (HPBA).

In 2002, 9 manufacturers formed the Outdoor Furnace Manufacturers Caucus under the HPBA (Hearth, Patio, & Barbecue Association). The caucus formed to address issues that affected the industry. In 2003, the caucus along with HPBA published the first Best Burn Practices for the outdoor wood furnace industry. It addressed starters, fuel use, location and stack heights in relation to the distance of residences (not served) to the outdoor furnace. The caucus supports permitting requirements, reasonable setbacks, proper fuel use and minimum stack heights.





Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket

hjhj
Below is what was taken from some of the OWB manufacturers' websites/manuals:

1) Central Boiler

Outdoor Furnace Best Burn Practices
Central Boiler, in partnership with our industry association, the Hearth, Patio and Barbeque Association (HPBA), recommends following the Outdoor Furnace Best Burn Practices, and the owner's manual.

Further, Central Boiler also has a website they maintain to talk about "Best Burn Practices"

CLICK BELOW:

Central Boiler even has a written model ordinance. These are the people who make OWBs saying that there should be a minimum standard and ordinance:

Central Boilers Model Ordinance

 

2) Heatmor

From the Owner's Manual of the OWB across from our home.

1) OWBs should not be used as a primary heating source, but used as a supplementary heating source.

2) Owners should only burn dry seasoned wood.

3) No accelerants should be used for burning.

4) Units should not be within 100 feet of a residence not being served.



So the question of the hour is this: Is it the OWB manufacturers fault? Or the fault of those who don't pay attention to the details? Our vote goes for the individual; because as it can be clearly seen on the date listed above, OWB manufacturers are telling consumers where and when OWBs should be used. They give the information to consumers before they purchase their products, thus they cannot foresee the careless actions taken by a buyer of their products. In our case, the boiler was purchased in October 2006, where as you can see above, the HPBA had its best burn practices released in July 2006. 


"BioMass" Research & News

The term Biomass has all but been ruined by the Outdoor Wood Boiler Industry.  OWB company's claim their product is healthy for the environment and etc., but their products are STRETCHING the truth as much as possible only to push and sell their products. 

It takes only a few days for an OWB to burn what it took 20 years for the Earth to grow.  How is that an equal distribution of Biomass? You be the judge.

View this website for information:

No Biomass Burning

 

Biomass Energy Disadvantages

By Roshan Valder | November 13, 2009

FULL ARTICLE

Burning Wood May Do More Harm Than Good

By Sami Grover | September 27, 2010

FULL ARTICLE

Government accused of ignoring air quality effects of biomass (United Kingdom):

By New Energy Focus | February 17, 2010

FULL ARTICLE

Why Biomass Wood Energy is Not the Answer

By George Wuerthner | January 12, 2010

FULL ARTICLE

Myths cloud the facts about biomass energy generation Guest viewpoint

Appeared in print: Monday, Oct. 26, 2009, page A9

FULL ARTICLE

 

 

Wood Smoke Research

Below are links that we have come across dealing with wood smoke and the effects it has on the human body.  These are a collection of scientific research papers written by renown scholars, scientists, and academics.  Often we have encountered many skeptics even believing wood smoke exposure is even an issue.

Some claim that wood smoke isn’t an issue because other sources like vehicle emissions, forest fires, and even barbecuing are comparable sources of particulate emissions. This of course is false as many of the studies below cite wood smoke as the #1 source of particulate pollution.



I tried to group the studies in research together geographically.  All of the articles are in English, however the research was conducted in different countries throughout the world.  This only proves our theory that this is a worldwide concern and not just an issue locally in the United States. You will come to see by the collection of research below that “wood smoke” is just as deadly, if not worse, as any other form of pollution. Also you will see that this research has been collected for many years, so that leaves us to ponder the question…….. Why does everyone still in the present day act like this is not a REAL issue?

 

Please view the list of research and case studies dealing with wood smoke below:

 

NOTE: SOME OF THESE LINKS DO REQUIRE ADOBE TO VIEW AS PDF FILES, IF YOU ARE HAVING TROUBLE VIEWING ANY OF THESE LINKS PLEASE CONTACT US AND WE WILL TRY TO FIX THE PROBLEM.

 

United States Research and Case Studies regarding Wood Smoke

Harvard Medical School Adviser (2010)

http://www.freep.com/article/20100214/FEATURES08/2140324/1025/Features/Harvard-Medical-School-adviser

Woodsmoke Health Effects: A Review (2007)
http://ehs.sph.berkeley.edu/krsmith/publications/2006%20pubs/JIT%20Woodsmoke2.pdf

Particulate Air Pollution, Oxidative Stress Genes, and Heart Rate Variability in an Elderly Cohort (2007)
http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/10318/10318.html

Case Report: A Case of Wood-Smoke–Related Pulmonary Disease (2006)
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1459932

Cause and Effect in Lung Cancer: Fueling the Fire (2005)
http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/full/128/1/6 

Wood Smoke Inhalation Causes Alveolar Instability in a Dose-Dependent Fashion (2005)
http://www.rcjournal.com/contents/08.05/08.05.1062.pdf

Lung Cancer Pathogenesis Associated With Wood Smoke Exposure (2005)
http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/full/128/1/124

Evaluation of a New Approach for Real Time Assessment of Wood Smoke PM (2004)
http://www.nescaum.org/documents/2004-10-25-allen-realtime_woodsmoke_indicator_awma.pdf

PM Toxicology: Latest Findings and EPRI’s New Research Initiatives (2003)
www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/03/valuing-ext/Rohr.pdf

Health Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Low Levels of Wood Smoke in Rats (2002)
http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/65/1/115

Highly Polar Organic Compounds Present in Wood Smoke and in the Ambient Atmosphere  (2001)
http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/esthag/2001/35/i10/abs/es001420r.html

Comparison of exogenous surfactants in the treatment of wood smoke inhalation (1995)
http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/152/2/597

Biomass Smoke Experimental Studies in Humans (Unknown Date)
www.umt.edu/cehs/ibshe_presentations/Balmes.pdf

Initial results on use of subcritical water for extraction and fractionation of organic aerosol from wood smoke and diesel exhaust particulate and application of toxicity tests(Unknown Date)
http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/02/air_q3/Organic%20Aerosol.pdf

International Research and Case Studies regarding Wood Smoke

Translocation of particles and inflammatory responses after exposure to fine particles and nanoparticles in an epithelial airway model (2007)
http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/pdf/1743-8977-4-9.pdf

Shedding new light on wood smoke: a risk factor for respiratory health (2006)
http://www.erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/content/full/27/3/446

Wood smoke exposure and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2006)
http://erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/content/full/27/3/542

Physicochemical characterisation of combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and residential wood smoke (2006)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16390554&dopt=AbstractPlus&holdng=f1000%2Cf1000m%2Cisrctn

Wood smoke extract induces oxidative stress-mediated caspase-independent
apoptosis in human lung endothelial cells: Role of AIF and EndoG (2005)
http://ajplung.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/00099.2005v1.pdf

Urinary Biomarkers in Charcoal Workers Exposed to Wood Smoke in Bahia State, Brazil (2004)
http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/full/13/6/1005

Household wood and charcoal smoke increases risk of otitis media in childhood in Maputo (2004)
http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/33/3/573.pdf

Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Wood Smoke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (2003)
http://meeting.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/124/4/168S-b

Wood-Smoke Exposure: An Unusual Cause of Miliary Mottling on Chest X-ray (2003)
http://medind.nic.in/iae/t03/i4/iaet03i4p273.pdf

Birth Weight and Exposure to Kitchen Wood Smoke During Pregnancy in Rural Guatemala (2002)
http://www.ehponline.org/members/2002/110p109-114boy/boy-full.html

Short-term Effects of Wood Smoke Exposure on the Respiratory System Among Charcoal Production Workers (2001)
http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/full/119/4/1260

Published Studies on the Health Effects of Woodsmoke (1998)
http://www.3sc.net/airqual/smog_refdescr.htm#CityWide

Stimulation of vagal pulmonary C fibers by inhaled wood smoke in rats (1998)
http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/84/1/30

Reflex apneic response evoked by laryngeal exposure to wood smoke in rats: neural and chemical mechanisms (1997)
http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/83/3/723

Exposure to biomass smoke and chronic airway disease in Mexican women. A case-control study (1996)
http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/154/3/701

 

Other Useful Research and Studies

Ringleman Smoke Chart:

 Published in 1967 by the U.S. Dept of Interior

ABSTRACT
The Ringelmann Smoke Chart fulfills an important need in smoke abatement work and in certain problems in the combustion of fuels. A knowledge of its history and method of preparation is, therefore, of interest to many. Since instructions on its use are not shown on the recent edition of the chart, those included in this revision of the previous Bureau of Mines publication now are a necessary complement to the chart. More detail regarding the use of the chart is included than was given in the earlier version.

 

CLICK HERE to view the Ringelmann Smoke Chart

 

Model Municipal By-law for regulating woodburning appliances (Canada):

Model Municipal By-law for regulating woodburning appliances

 

Research Graveyard

Below are links to research that have many deadlinks and were posted prior to 2010. Currently, we are integrating these links in other areas of the website such as the Model Ordinances page and  Studies/Research & Laws  page.

Know of a study not on this list? Please contact us and let us know and we would be more than happy to add it to our site.

freedomofair@yahoo.com

Keywords

Outdoor Wood Boiler, Outdoor Wood Furnace, Outdoor Wood Heater, Outdoor Hydronic Heater, OWB, OWF, OWHH, Freedom of Air, Freedom of Air News, Freedom of Air on MySpace, against, issues, facts, faq, myths, news, bans, legal, illegal, laws, law, ordinance, PM 2.5, PM 2.5 Wood Boiler, woodboiler, woodfurnace, wood smoke, current outside wood boiler news, wood smoke complaints, burning issues, Clean Air Revival, banned outdoor wood boilers, banned outdoor wood furnace, banned outdoor wood heater, restricted outdoor wood boilers, restricted outdoor wood furnace, restricted outdoor wood heater, neighbor's smoke, OWB bans, air pollution from OWBs, civil lawsuits OWBs, Outdoor Wood Boiler civil, particulate OWB, Outdoor wood boiler particulate matter, particulate matter 2.5, New York Attorney General Report OWBs, New York Attorney General Report Outdoor Wood Boilers, federal regulations on outdoor wood boilers, Outdoor Wood Boiler Facts, Outdoor Wood Furnace Facts, Outdoor Wood Heater Facts, Outdside Wood Boiler Facts, Outside Wood Furnace Facts, Outside Wood Heater Facts, Outdoor Wood Boiler News, Outdoor Hydronic Wood Boiler Facts, Outdoor Wood Furnace News, Outside Wood Boiler, Outdoor Wood Boiler Data, Outdoor Wood Furnace Data, David Brown OWB, David Brown outdoor wood boiler, EPA OWB, EPA Outdoor Wood Boiler, EPA Outdoor Wood Boiler, EPA Outdoor Wood Furnace, EPA Outdoor Hydronic Heater, www.epa.gov/owhh, stop owb pollution, outdoor wood boiler regulation, outdoor wood furnace regulation, outdoor wood heater regulation, neighbor complaints outdoor hydronic heaters, neighbor complaints outdoor wood boiler, neighbor complaints outdoor wood furnace, neighbor complaints outdoor wood heater, facts about Outdoor Wood Boilers, Outside Wood Boilers, Outside Wood Furnace, Outside wood heater, CT Attorney General, wood smoke, woodsmoke, woodboiler, woodfurnace, laws against OWBs, NESCAUM OWB, Nancy Alderman, OWB Plume Data, Outdoor Wood Boiler Plume Data, Emission rates of Outdoor Wood Boilers, Emission rates of OWBs, Outdoor Wood Boiler Fact Sheet, Outdoor Wood Boiler Ordiances, OWB Ordinance, Outdoor Wood Furnace ordinance